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How to use Nasal SpraysLEARN MORE
1. Gently blow nose to clear nostrils.
2. Wash hands with soapy water before using the spray.
3. Remove the cap from the spray.
4. Gently shake the spray. If using it for the first time, shake and spray it into the air several times to ensure that it is in good condition.
5. Tilt head slightly forward (look down at feet).
6. Close one nostril; gently press against the side of the nose with one finger.
7. Insert tip of nasal spray into open nostril and slowly breathe in through the open nostril, and while breathing in squeeze the spray to deliver one dose. It is important to keep the spray upright (do not sniff hard as the spray will travel straight to the back of the throat, failing to deposit any medication in the nostril).
8. Remove spray from the nose and breathe out through the mouth. Tilt head backwards for about a minute to prevent the liquid spray running out of the nose. If two puffs of a nasal spray are to be applied to each nostril, try to aim in a slightly different direction with each spray to cover as much of the lining of the nose as is possible.
9. Repeat in other nostril as directed. Nasal sprays may cause an unpleasant taste when draining into the throat. A drink of water will help remove the taste.
10. Dry the nozzle with a paper towel ，replace cap on spray.
11. Try not to blow nose for several minutes after using the spray.
《 药学实践 Applied Pharmaceutical Practice》
How to use TurbuhalerLEARN MORE
1. Unscrew the cap and take it off. Hold the inhaler upright
2. Twist the colored grip of your Turbuhaler in any direction as far as it will go, and then twist it all the way back. You should hear a "click"
*For first time use, please do Step 2 twice
3. Breathe out away from the device
4. Place the mouthpiece between your teeth, and close your lips around it. Breathe in forcefully and deeply through your mouth
5. Remove the Turbuhaler from your mouth. Hold your breath for 5 seconds before breathing out
6. If you need a 2nd dose, repeat steps 2 to 5. When finished, replace the cap
7. After using, rinse your mouth and gargle with water, then spit out. Don’t swallow
8. The number in the side counter window indicates the number of doses left. When a red mark appears at the window, this means that your medication is running out. Please replace one immediately
Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) Patient EducationLEARN MORE
In the absence of oseltamivir granules available, adults, adolescents or children who cannot swallow capsules can use this capsule to prepare oral suspension for use.
Please follow the method below to make sure the accuracy of dose：
1. Hold a 75mg capsule above a small measuring cup. Carefully open the capsule and pour the powder into the measuring cup.
2. Use a calibrated syringe to add 5ml water to the bowl and stir for about 2 minutes.
3. Use syringe to extract the correct amount of mixture (in ml) according to dosage instructed by your doctor from the measuring cup.
4. Do not ingest undissolved white powder as these are inactive ingredients. Push the plunger of the syringe and pour the mixture into the second measuring cup. Unused mixtures should be discarded.
5. In the second measuring cup, add a small amount (up to 5ml) of sweet food, and mix with the mixture (to cover the bitter taste).
6. Mix well and give all to patient. The mixture should be swallowed immediately after preparation. If there is any mixture left in the bowl, rinse with a small amount of water and give to patient to drink.
Repeat each time if you need to take the medicine.
*Administration instruction (oral)：
(1) Oseltamivir can be taken with or without food;Take it with food to relieve stomach discomfort；
(2) For the treatment of influenza a and b, treatment should be started within 2 days (ideally within 36 hours) of the onset of flu symptoms.
◆ Store in a dry place. Do not store in the bathroom.
◆ Keep all medications in a safe place and out of reach of children and pets.
*What do I do if I miss a dose?
• Take a missed dose as soon as you think about it.
• If it is less than 2 hours until your next dose, skip the missed dose and go back to your normal time.
• Do not take 2 doses at the same time or extra doses.
1. Oseltamivir（Tamiflu）Package Insert
2. Up to date
3. Influenza diagnosis and treatment guide (China 2011)
4. Applied Pharmaceutical Practice（2009）
How to use a Valved Holding ChamberLEARN MORE
1. Check that the holding chamber is in good condition, without any foreign objects. A damaged holding chamber cannot be used
2. Remove the INHALER DEVICE cap
3. Shake INHALER DEVICE canister vigorously for about 5 seconds. If using INHALER DEVICE for the first time, shake and spray the INHALER DEVICE into the air 1 to 2 times to ensure that it is in good condition
4. Insert the INHALER DEVICE into the back-piece of the holding chamber
5. Ask your child to sit in an upright position, and tilt their head back slightly towards the ceiling
6. Hold the INHALER DEVICE and holding chamber correctly as shown below
7. Apply the mask to your child’s face, ensuring an effective seal around the mouth and nose. Ensure there are no foreign objects in the mouth
8. Press the INHALER DEVICE with your thumb to release the medicine
9. Ask your child to breathe normally for 10 to 15 seconds, Please do not remove the mask until you have finished 10 to 15 seconds of breathing
10. Administer 1 puff at a time. Wait for about 15 to 30 seconds before the next puff.
11. Repeat steps 3 to 10 for the next puff
12. Remove the mask from the child's face
13. Ask your child to rinse his/her mouth, wash their face with water after use and Make sure the child will spit out the mouthwash
14. Re-cover INHALER DEVICE
How to clean and store a Valved Holding Chamber：
Clean the holding chamber before using it for the first time. Then clean the holding chamber weekly or biweekly
1. Remove the parts of the holding chamber (Don't take off your mouthpiece! B1, figure 1)
2. Soak the parts for 15 minutes in a mild solution of liquid dish detergent and lukewarm (around 40°C) clean water
3. Agitate it gently and clean all parts
4. Rinse parts in clean water, if necessary, use tap water to gently flush the one-way valve (B2, figure 1) back to the original position
5. Shake out any excess water from the parts, and allow them to air-dry in a vertical position
6. Ensure that the parts are dry before reassembly
7. Storage temperature: 5°C to 55°C, relative humidity of no more than 90%, cool and clean indoor environment
Reference: 1 Chamber insert
2 Uptodate patient education
How to prepare Potassium Permanganate External Solution from the tabletLEARN MORE
Potassium permanganate external solution is used to cleanse wounds and dermatitis skin conditions.
Preparation must be freshly made before use. The solution will appear pink or purple in color.
Be careful when handling this tablet and solution as it can permanently stain clothing and surface touched.
Different concentrations may be used as prescribed by your doctor.
Pharmacist to tick √ on the correct concentration for patient according to prescribed strength:
○ Concentration 1:10,000 (0.01%)
- Dissolve 1 tablet in 1000ml (1 liter) of warm water
- Sitz bath for topical treatment
- Fill the basin just short of full
- Soak the affected area for 5 to 10 minutes or as directed by your doctor.
- Dry the area with a clean towel that you don’t mind changing color.
- If the solution gets on other areas of your skin, wash with soap and water.
○ Concentration 1:4,000 (0.025%)
- Dissolve 1 tablet in 400ml of warm water
- For acute dermatitis, eczema and other skin condition
- Soak the gauze or sterile cotton ball into the prepared solution to apply on the affected skin area as wet dressing.
- The affected area can also be directly soaked into the prepared solution
○ Concentration 1:1,000 (0.1%)
- Dissolve 1 tablet in 100ml of warm water
- For wound cleansing
- Soak the sterile cotton ball or cotton tip in the prepared solution to clean the affected wound.
1. External use only, do not take orally.
2. Irritant to mucosal membranes
Ref: Product package insert, British National Formulary
Instruction for parent to mix fluconazole suspension for oral useLEARN MORE
Ingredient: Fluconazole 50mg capsule, drinking water
Tools: Measuring cup, oral syringe
1. Open the 50mg capsule, put the powder content into the measuring cup, and add water until 5ml (to make concentration 10mg/ml).
2. Use the oral syringe to measure the correct amount of mixture (dose by bodyweight) as prescribed by doctor:
Your child’s dose in prescription: _________mg = ________ml
3.Discard the remaining.
4. If the child’s treatment dose is more than 50mg, then 150mg capsule will be used, add water to mix to 15ml suspension, repeat 2 and 3.
How to use AccuhalerLEARN MORE
Step 1: Open
• Hold your Accuhaler in one hand with the dose-counter window facing upwards and place the thumb of your other hand on the thumb grip.
• Open your Accuhaler by pushing the thumb grip right around until it clicks.
Step 2: Prepare Medication
• Hold your Accuhaler level with the mouthpiece towards you.
• Use your thumb to push the lever away from you until you hear it clicks
Step 3: Breathe out then inhale
• Breathe out as much as possible. Avoid exhaling into your Accuhaler
• Put the mouthpiece between your teeth and use your lips to seal the mouthpiece
• Breathe in steadily with your mouth through your Accuhaler (not through your nose)
• Remove your Accuhaler and hold your breath for about 10 seconds
• Breathe out slowly
Step 4: Close
• Close your Accuhaler by sliding the thumb grip back to the original position until it clicks
• Rinse your mouth with water and spit out after using your Accuhaler.
• The dose counter on the top of the Accuhaler shows how many doses are left to use. Numbers 5 to 0 will appear in RED, that means you need to get another Accuhaler from doctor.
Warfarin (WAR-far-in) (By mouth)
Prevents and treats blood clots. May lower the risk of serious complications after a heart attack. This medicine is a blood thinner.
Brand Name(s): Coumadin, Jantoven
There may be other brand names for this medicine.
When This Medicine Should Not Be Used:
This medicine is not right for everyone. Do not use it if you had an allergic reaction to warfarin, if you are pregnant, or if you have health problems that could cause bleeding.
How to Use This Medicine:
• Take your medicine as directed. Your dose may need to be changed several times to find what works best for you.
• This medicine should come with a Medication Guide. Ask your pharmacist for a copy if you do not have one.
• Missed dose: Take a dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, wait until then and take a regular dose. Do not take extra medicine to make up for a missed dose.
• Store the medicine in a closed container at room temperature, away from heat, moisture, and direct light.
Drugs and Foods to Avoid:
Ask your doctor or pharmacist before using any other medicine, including over-the-counter medicines, vitamins, and herbal products.
• Many medicines and foods can affect how warfarin works and may affect the PT/INR test results. Tell your doctor before you start or stop any medicine, especially the following:
○ Co-enzyme Q10, echinacea, garlic, ginkgo, ginseng, goldenseal, or St John's wort
○ Another blood thinner, including apixaban, argatroban, bivalirudin, cilostazol, clopidogrel, dabigatran, desirudin, dipyridamole, heparin, lepirudin, prasugrel, rivaroxaban, ticlopidine
○ Medicine to treat depression or anxiety, including citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, milnacipran, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, vilazodone
○ Medicine to treat an infection
○ NSAID pain or arthritis medicine, including aspirin, celecoxib, diclofenac, diflunisal, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, naproxen, oxaprozin, piroxicam, sulindac. Check labels for over-the-counter medicines to find out if they contain an NSAID.
○ Steroid medicine, including dexamethasone, hydrocortisone, methylprednisolone, prednisolone, prednisone
• Warfarin works best if you eat about the same amount of vitamin K every day. Foods high in vitamin K include asparagus, broccoli, brussels sprouts, cabbage, green leafy vegetables, plums, rhubarb, and canola oil. Talk to your doctor before you make changes to your normal diet.
• Do not eat grapefruit or drink grapefruit juice while you are using this medicine.
Warnings While Using This Medicine:
• It is not safe to take this medicine during pregnancy. It could harm an unborn baby. Tell your doctor right away if you become pregnant. Use an effective form of birth control to keep from getting pregnant during treatment and for at least one month after your last dose.
• Tell your doctor if you are breastfeeding, or if you have kidney disease, liver disease, heart disease, diabetes, heart failure, high blood pressure, an infection, a stomach ulcer, or protein C deficiency. Also tell your doctor if you had recent surgery or an injury, or a history of stroke, anemia, severe bleeding or bruising, or problems caused by heparin use.
• This medicine may cause the following problems:
○ Bleeding, which may be life-threatening
○ Gangrene (skin or tissue damage)
○ Calciphylaxis or calcium uremic arteriolopathy
○ Kidney problems, including acute kidney injury
○ Purple toes syndrome
• You must have a PT/INR blood test while you use this medicine to check how well your blood is clotting. Your doctor will use the test results to make sure the medicine is working properly. Keep all appointments for the PT/INR blood tests.
• You may bleed or bruise more easily with warfarin. To prevent injury or cuts, do not play rough sports, be careful with sharp objects, and brush and floss your teeth gently. Blow your nose gently, and do not pick your nose.
• Carry an ID card or wear a medical alert bracelet to let emergency caregivers know that you use warfarin.
•Tell any doctor or dentist who treats you that you are using this medicine. You may need to stop using this medicine several days before you have surgery or medical tests.
• Keep all medicine out of the reach of children. Never share your medicine with anyone.
Possible Side Effects While Using This Medicine:
Call your doctor right away if you notice any of these side effects:
• Allergic reaction: Itching or hives, swelling in your face or hands, swelling or tingling in your mouth or throat, chest tightness, trouble breathing
• Bleeding from your gums or nose, coughing up blood, heavy monthly periods
• Bleeding that does not stop, bruising, or weakness
• Dizziness, fainting, lightheadedness
• Pain, brown or black skin, or skin that is cool to the touch
• Purple toes or feet, or new pain in your leg, foot, or toes
• Purplish red, net-like, blotchy spots on the skin
• Red or dark brown urine, or red or black, tarry stools
• Vomiting blood or material that looks like coffee grounds
If you notice other side effects that you think are caused by this medicine, tell your doctor.
© 2017 Truven Health Analytics LLC
WHAT YOU NEED TO KNOW:
Steri-strips are sterile pieces of medical tape used to close wounds and help the edges grow back together. Steri-strips keep the wound clean and protected while it heals. Steri-strips usually fall off on their own in about 7 to 10 days.
Return to the emergency department if:
• You have a fever.
• You see red streaks on your skin starting at the wound.
• Your wound has a foul smell or is draining fluid or pus.
• Your wound is red, swollen, and warm to the touch.
• Your wound opens or comes apart.
Contact your healthcare provider if:
• The skin under and around the steri-strips itches or is not comfortable.
• You have questions or concerns about your condition or care.
How to use steri-strips:
Always wash your hands before you care for your wound. This will help prevent infection. Clean and dry the skin around your wound before you put on new steri-strips.
• Care for the wound as directed. Do not bathe for 24 hours. After 24 hours, wash around the area gently as directed. Pat the area dry with a clean towel, or let it air dry. Do not rub the area with a towel to dry it. Check the wound for signs of infection, such as swelling or pus.
• Only remove the steri-strips if directed. Your healthcare provider may want you to remove the steri-strips after a certain number of days. Do not remove them early, even if they are causing itching or discomfort. If you are directed to remove the steri-strips, pull gently. You might cause the wound to open if you pull hard. Hold the skin down as you slowly and gently remove the strips.
• Apply new steri-strips as directed.
○ Start at the middle of the wound.
○ Gently bring the edges of the wound together and place the middle of the steri-strip on the wound.
○ Do not stretch the steri-strip.
○ Smooth the ends of the steri-strip down onto your skin.
○ Add more steri-strips as needed for the rest of the wound.
○ Leave small gaps between strips so you do not completely cover the wound. Fluid from the wound may build under the strips if you completely cover it. The fluid may make the strips peel.
○ Your healthcare provider may recommend that you add steri-strips down the ends of the pieces you placed across the wound. This will help keep the steri-strips in place as you move.
• Do not scrub or pick at the steri-strips. This can cause your wound to open. Trim the edges of the strips if they start to curl. Then press the ends firmly onto your skin.
Follow up with your healthcare provider as directed: Write down your questions so you remember to ask them during your visits.
© 2017 Truven Health Analytics LLC All illustrations and images included in CareNotes® are the copyrighted property of A.D.A.M., Inc. or Truven Health Analytics.
Coping with HemorrhoidsLEARN MORE
What is hemorrhoid?
A hemorrhoid is a swollen vein in the area around the anus, the opening through which stool passes. Hemorrhoids are a very common health problem. Many people have both internal and external hemorrhoids.
• Internal hemorrhoids develop inside the anal passageway. They are usually not painful, but they can cause a small amount of bleeding, most often with bowel movements.
• External hemorrhoids develop around the rim of the anus, where they can cause itching and discomfort.
What are the signs of hemorrhoids?
You may see a bit of blood on the toilet paper after having a bowel movement. You might also see traces of blood on your stool or coloring the water inside the toilet bowl. You may feel a bulge or lump in the area around your anus.
What causes them?
Hemorrhoids can develop from chronic constipation, straining to pass stools, and recurrent diarrhea. Women sometimes get hemorrhoids from pregnancy and childbirth. As you get older, you are more likely to develop hemorrhoids.
What is the treatment for hemorrhoids?
Although hemorrhoids are annoying, they are not usually a serious medical problem. Most of the time, you can relieve the symptoms of hemorrhoids with home treatments. However, if you notice rectal bleeding, it is important to see your doctor for an examination. Your doctor will check to see whether the bleeding is coming from hemorrhoids or something more serious, such as rectal cancer.
Recommended home treatments include:
• Increasing the amount of fiber in your diet. A fiber-rich diet softens stools so that they pass more easily, reducing pressure on hemorrhoids
○ High-fiber foods include beans, broccoli, carrots, bran, whole grains, and fresh fruits. Ask your doctor for patient handouts on dietary fiber and fiber content of foods. To avoid bloating and gas, add these foods gradually over several days. Drinking enough fluids (six to eight cups a day) helps you digest fiber and also helps soften stools.
○ If you don't think you are getting enough fiber in your diet, you can also buy fiber supplements in the drug store (without a prescription). Flavored and artificially sweetened varieties are available. The usual dose is two teaspoons or two packets in liquid once or twice a day.
• Sitz baths. Sitting in a tub filled with warm water for 10 to 15 minutes several times a day can ease discomfort. (Large pharmacies and medical supply stores also sell convenient plastic sitz bath devices that fit into a toilet.) The warm water will keep the area clean, and the warmth will reduce inflammation. Be sure to dry the rectal area thoroughly after each sitz bath. If you work, try taking a sitz bath in the morning, upon your return from work and
• Applying a cold compress or icepack to the anal area, or try a cool cotton pad soaked in witch hazel.
• Petroleum jelly or aloe vera gel, applied to the anal area, can soothe the skin. Over-the-counter hemorrhoid preparations containing hydrocortisone can reduce swelling, but use them sparingly because they can dry out your
If hemorrhoids do not respond to these measures, your doctor may recommend medical treatment.
Medical treatments for small to medium, mostly internal hemorrhoids can usually be done in a surgeon’s office. They include:
• Rubber-band ligation - A rubber band is slipped around the base of hemorrhoid to cut off its circulation. Once it has been deprived of its vital blood supply, the banded hemorrhoid withers and falls off. This treatment is the most effective and most common.
• Sclerotherapy - an irritating chemical solution is injected directly into hemorrhoid or the area around it. The solution interferes with blood flow inside the hemorrhoid, causing it to shrink.
• Laser therapy, infrared light therapy, electro-cauterization, or freezing therapy are all used to shrink hemorrhoids.
For patients who have large hemorrhoids, or prominent external hemorrhoids, hemorrhoidectomy (surgically removing the hemorrhoids) is sometimes recommended. This procedure is an outpatient procedure done under anesthesia. It usually has excellent results.
What can I do to prevent another flare-up of hemorrhoids?
• Eat plenty of fiber-rich foods.
• Drink plenty of liquids. To help keep your stool soft, it’s a good idea to drink between six and eight glasses of water daily.
• Exercise regularly. Twenty to thirty minutes of brisk walking daily helps to stimulate easier bowel movements.
• Respond immediately to the urge to have a bowel movement. Do not postpone until the time is more convenient.
Home Treatments for Hemorrhoids
To avoid making hemorrhoids worse:
• After a bowel movement, blot the area gently with white toilet paper moistened with water. You can also use Baby Wipes or other premoistened towels (such as Tucks) for this purpose.
• In the bath or shower, use only soaps without perfumes or dyes. Avoid rubbing the anal area. Gently pat dry with a soft, absorbent, or cloth.
To relieve pain and itching:
• Take a sitz bath once or twice a day. Sock in a tub or a pan of plain, warm water (at bathwater temperature) for 15 to 20 minutes. You can buy a plastic sitz bath basin that fits into the toilet at larger pharmacies and medical supply stores. The sitz bath water keeps the area clean, decreases redness and swelling, and relaxes the muscles.
To prevent hemorrhoids from coming back:
• Add more fiber to your diet to prevent constipation. Focus on fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. Fiber supplements such as Citrucel and Metamucil can also add bulk to the diet. You can buy fiber supplements at a drug store without a prescription. They are not laxatives. They do not stimulate the bowel to move. They help make your bowel movements soft and less irritating. Follow the label instructions for use. Be sure to drink plenty of water or other fluids when you increase the fiber in your diet.
• Get more exercise. Moderate exercise - 30 minutes or more three or four times a week - helps keep your bowels functioning properly. Brisk walking, swimming, gardening, dancing, housework, any activity that gets you moving will do. Vary the kinds of exercise you do to keep it interesting.
This document is intended to provide health-related information so that you may be better informed. It is not a substitute for your care team's medical advice and should not be relied upon for treatment for specific medical conditions.
2017 The General Hospital Corporation.
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